The impact of individual and group_based expectations on the self_image and reading comprehension of iranian intermediate efl learners

  • Elahe Salehi Islamic Azad University, Kish island, Iran.
  • Ali-Reza Ameri Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
  • Gholam-Reza Abbasian Imam Ali University, Tehran, Iran.


The study scrutinized the effect of individual and group-based expectations on EFL learners' self-image and reading comprehension. This study explored the effectuality of individual expectations and group-based expectations in improving self-image and reading comprehension among EFL learners. To do so, 50 out of 120 Iranian EFL learners were chosen as the sample of the study and they were divided into two groups of Individual-based Expectation Instruction and Group-based Expectation Instruction, received five sessions of instruction along with some types of expectations and took two types of reading and self-image tests as a pre- and post-test. In general, the results showed no significant difference between the two groups’ mean scores on the post-test of self-image. The results revealed that the individual expectation group significantly outperformed the group-based expectation group on the post-test of reading comprehension. The findings suggest that using different forms of expectations in language classes can be instrumental in improving the students’ self-image and reading comprehension.

Biografia do Autor

Elahe Salehi, Islamic Azad University, Kish island, Iran.

PhD candidate in TEFL, Department of English, Kish International Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kish island, Iran.


Ali-Reza Ameri, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

Assistant professor of Applied Linguistics, Department of English, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.


Gholam-Reza Abbasian, Imam Ali University, Tehran, Iran.

Assistant professor of Applied Linguistics, Department of English, Imam Ali University, Tehran, Iran.



Atkinson, J. (1964). An introduction to motivation. Princeton, Van Nostrand.

Araujo, A., & Silva, I. P. (2020). Maker culture and educational robotics in physics teaching: developing an automated traffic light in high school. Journal of Research and Knowledge Spreading, 1(1), e11654.

Babad, E. (1993). Pygmalion: 25 years after interpersonal expectations in the classroom. In P. D. Blank (Ed.), Interpersonal expectations: Theory, research, and application. Studies in emotional and social interactions (pp. 125–153). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Biancarosa, G., & Snow, C. E. (2004). Reading next-A vision for action and research in middle and high school literacy: A report from Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education.

Bråten, I. (red.). (2007). Leseforståelse. Lesing i kunnskapssamfunnet – teori og praksis. Oslo: Cappelen Akademisk Forlag.

Bråten, I. & Strømsø, M. (2011). Measuring strategic processing when students read multiple texts. Metacognition and Learning, 6(2), 111-130.

Brito, R. dos S., Prado, J. R., & Nunes, C. P. (2017). As condições de trabalho docente e o pós-estado de bem-estar social. Revista Tempos e Espaços em Educação, 10(23), 165-174.

Brophy, J. (2009) Connecting with the big picture. Educational Psychologist, 44: 147-157.

Cook, V. (2008). Second Language Learning and Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Chapman, J. W. & Tunmer, W. E. (2003). Reading difficulties, reading-related self-perceptions, and strategies for overcoming negative self-beliefs. Reading & Writing Quarterly: Overcoming Learning Difficulties, 19, 5-24.

Chapman, J. W., Tunmer, W. E. & Prochnow, J. E. (2000). Early reading-related skills and performance, reading self-concept, and the development of academic self-concept: A longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92, 703-708.

Gough, P. & Tunmer, W. (1986). Decoding, reading, and reading disability. Remedial and Special Education, 7, 6–10.

Guthrie, J. T. & Wigfield, A. (2000). Engagement and motivation in reading. Handbook of reading research, 3, 403-422.

Guthrie, J. T., Wigfield, A. & Perencevich, K. C. (2004a). Scaffolding for motivation and engagement in reading. In: J. T. Guthrie, A. Wigfield & K. C. Perencevich (Eds). Motivating reading comprehension: Concept oriented reading instruction (pp. 55-86). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Jussim, L., & Eccles, J. (1992) Teacher expectations: Construction and reflection of student achievement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 947–961.

Kolb, K. J., & Jussim, L. (1994). Teacher expectations and underachieving gifted children. Roeper Review, 17, 26–30.

Kverndokken, K. (2012). 101 måter å lese leseleksa på. Bergen: Fagbokforlaget.

Lundahl, B. (1998). Engelsk Språkdidaktik. Texter, kommunikation, språkutveckling. Lund: Studentlitteratur AB.

Roe, A. (2014). Lesedidaktikk – etter den første leseopplæringen. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.

Rosenthal, R., & Jacobson, L. (1968). Pygmalion in the classroom: Teacher expectation and pupils’ intellectual development. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Rotter, J. (1966) Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 80, 1-28.

Rodrigues, B. M., Santos, J. E. B., & Vasconcelos, C. A. (2020). Conceptions of undergraduate students in Chemistry on the use of interactive interfaces in and for the activities developed in the distance course. Journal of Research and Knowledge Spreading, 1(1), e11649

Rubie-Davies, C. M., Hattie, J., & Hamilton, R. (2006). Expecting the best for students: Teacher expectations and academic outcomes. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 76(3), 429–444.

Santos, J. E. B. (2020). Cartographic narratives: the teaching of mathematics and ICT. Journal of Research and Knowledge Spreading, 1(1), e11645

Scott-Jones, D., & Clark, M. L. (1986). The school experiences of black girls: The interaction of gender, race or ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Phi Delta Kappan, 67(7), 520–526.

Silva, C. V. S., & Santos, G. O. (2020). Digital interfaces: a methodological proposal as a strategy of teaching and learning in Mathematics classes. Journal of Research and Knowledge Spreading, 1(1), e11651.

Stanovich, K. E. (1986). Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences of individual differences in the acquisition of literacy. Reading Research Quarterly, 21, 360-406.

Tolman, E. C. (1938). The determiners of behavior at choice point. Psychological Review, 45: 1–41.

Tornberg, U. (2000). Språkdidaktikk. (2.nd edition). Bergen: Fagbokforlaget.

Wigfield, A. & Tonks, S. (2004). The development of motivation for reading and how it is influenced by CORI. In: J.T. Guthrie, A. Wigfield & K.C. Perencevich (Eds). Motivating reading comprehension: Concept oriented reading instruction. (pp. 249272). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Williams, M. & Burden, R. (1999). Students’ developing conceptions of themselves as language learners. The Modern Language Journal, 83,193-201.

Williams, M., Burden, R. & Al-Baharna, S. (2001). Making sense of success and failure: the role of the individual in motivation theory. IN Dörnyei, Z. & Schmidt, R. (Eds.), Motivation and second language acquisition. Manoa, HI, University of Hawai'i.

Zuroff, D. C., & Rotter, J. B. (1985). A history of the expectancy concept in psychology. In J. B. Dusek (Ed.), Teacher. expectancies (pp. 9–36). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Como Citar
Salehi, E., Ameri, A.-R., & Abbasian, G.-R. (2021). The impact of individual and group_based expectations on the self_image and reading comprehension of iranian intermediate efl learners. Revista Tempos E Espaços Em Educação, 14(33), e15298.
Publicação Contínua