Investigating the relationship between hidden curriculum and academic optimism in upper secondary school students
This study aimed to determine the relationship between hidden curriculum and academic optimism in upper secondary school students. The research method was descriptive-correlational. The statistical population of this research consists of upper secondary school students of Pakdasht city in the academic year 2020-2021 with 3500 people. The sample size was determined based on Krejcie and Morgan table of 346 people. Also, for sampling, after estimating the sample size, the available random sampling method was use. In order to collect data, two standardized questionnaires were used for assessing the hidden curriculum (Fathi Vajargah) and the questionnaire for assessing academic optimism (Schennemoran). Descriptive statistics methods including: mean, percentage and frequency and inferential statistics such as: Pearson correlation test, one-sample t-test and multiple regression were used. SPSS22 was also used to analyze the collected data. The findings of Pearson correlation coefficient indicated that there is a significant relationship between the hidden curriculum and the academic optimism of the studied students at the alpha level of 0.01. Findings of one-sample t-test indicated that the students surveyed were at a relatively good level in terms of the components of academic optimism as well as the hidden curriculum. The results of correlation test showed that there is a significant relationship between the two components of the hidden curriculum (school social atmosphere and teacher-student interactions) with students 'academic optimism, but the findings showed that there isn’t any relationship between school organizational structure and students' academic optimism. The correlation coefficient also showed that there is a significant and direct relationship between the hidden curriculum and all components of students' academic optimism. Also, the findings of regression test indicated that the latent hidden curriculum variable explains 0.28 variance of academic optimism of the students and only the organizational structure of the school did not play a significant role in predicting students' academic optimism. Also, the findings of the regression test indicated that among components of hidden curriculum, the component of teacher-student interactions had the largest share in explaining and predicting changes in students' academic optimism.
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